• rubber compounding - an overview | sciencedirect topics

    Rubber Compounding - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    Rubber compounding was performed on a two-roll mill (Lab Walzwerk MT 6″×13″, Rubicon, Germany) in a three-stage process. In the first stage, the rubber was mixed with zinc oxide, stearic acid, CB, and Struktol or IPPD. Then the rubber/MLG masterbatch was added to the rubber compound in the second stage.

  • rubber compoundingformulation of rubber compounds

    Rubber compoundingFormulation of Rubber Compounds

    Rubber compoundingFormulation of Rubber Compounds Dr Jakub Kadlcak Manager Material Development Automotive Dr Matthias Soddemann Head of Material Development Automotive RIEG Conference, 7th and 8th December 2016, London, UK

  • the art of rubber compounding - the hygenic corp.

    The Art of Rubber Compounding - The Hygenic Corp.

    As if compounding wasn’t already difficult enough, compounding rubber can be even more difficult because it’s a natural product. Even if the compound formula is “perfect,” there can still be differences in the properties of the final compound due to natural variances in the rubber itself.

  • rubber compounding accelerator tmtd, rubber compounding accelerator

    Rubber Compounding Accelerator Tmtd, Rubber Compounding Accelerator

    Alibaba.com offers 83 rubber compounding accelerator tmtd products. About 4% of these are rubber auxiliary agents, 2% are plastic auxiliary agents. A wide variety of rubber compounding accelerator tmtd options are available to you, such as rubber auxiliary agents, plastic auxiliary agents, and coating auxiliary agents.

  • rubber compounding: principles, materials, and techniques

    Rubber compounding: Principles, Materials, and Techniques

    Natural rubber and styrene/butadiene rubber have been blended for a long time for many purposes such as lowering the compound cost [4, 5]. A lot of studies have demonstrated the physico-mechanical

  • rubber compounding ingredients - rubber compounds and industrial rubber

    Rubber compounding ingredients - Rubber compounds and industrial rubber

    Ingredients in rubber compound is a large group of components, including curing agents, accelerators and vulcanization activators, antioxidants, plasticizers, fillers and special additives (blowing agents, dyes, etc.). The list of ingredients in phr (parts per hundred rubber) called rubber compound recipe.

  • starting point rubber compounding formulations

    STARTING POINT RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULATIONS

    STARTING POINT RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULATIONS . Important Note: These are Starting Point Rubber Compounding Formulations for providing guide lines only and should be confirmed by laboratory trials. It is expected that modifications may be necessary to produce satisfactory commercial products.

  • basic rubber compounding

    Basic Rubber Compounding

    Basic Rubber Compounding. In any molded rubber product, the three major influences of part quality that we control are the mold, the process and the rubber formulation. By far the most influential is the latter.

  • rubber | chemical compound | britannica

    Rubber | chemical compound | Britannica

    Rubber, elastic substance obtained from the exudations of certain tropical plants (natural rubber) or derived from petroleum and natural gas (synthetic rubber). Because of its elasticity, resilience, and toughness, rubber is the basic constituent of the tires used in automotive vehicles, aircraft,

  • what is a rubber compound? | hot topics

    What is a Rubber Compound? | Hot Topics

    Sometimes, there is a misconception that a rubber compound is one ingredient and is the same for every different polymer type. This could not be further from the truth. A rubber compound could be a combination of 3 to 15 different ingredients of thousands of different compositions and vendors.

  • rubber compounding accelerator tmtd, rubber

    Rubber Compounding Accelerator Tmtd, Rubber

    Alibaba offers 83 rubber compounding accelerator tmtd products. About 4% of these are rubber auxiliary agents, 2% are plastic auxiliary agents. A wide variety of rubber compounding accelerator tmtd options are available to you, such as rubber auxiliary agents, plastic auxiliary agents, and

  • basic rubber compounding

    Basic Rubber Compounding

    Basic Rubber Compounding. In any molded rubber product, the three major influences of part quality that we control are the mold, the process and the rubber formulation. By far the most influential is the latter. In plastics, designers can use material suppliers’ specification data to determine what material will work best in their application

  • starting point rubber compounding formulations

    STARTING POINT RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULATIONS

    STARTING POINT RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULATIONS . Important Note: These are Starting Point Rubber Compounding Formulations for providing guide lines only and should be confirmed by laboratory trials. It is expected that modifications may be necessary to

  • rubber compounding accelerator, rubber compounding

    Rubber Compounding Accelerator, Rubber Compounding

    Alibaba offers 130 rubber compounding accelerator products. About 26% of these are rubber auxiliary agents, 14% are plastic auxiliary agents, and 6% are adsorbent. A wide variety of rubber compounding accelerator options are available to you, such as rubber auxiliary agents, plastic auxiliary agents, and coating auxiliary agents.

  • what is a rubber compound? hot topics

    What is a Rubber Compound? Hot Topics

    2016-11-28· Sometimes, there is a misconception that a rubber compound is one ingredient and is the same for every different polymer type. This could not be further from the truth. A rubber compound could be a combination of 3 to 15 different ingredients of thousands of different compositions and vendors. A typical rubber formation based on parts per hundred is: Polymer 100 phr Filler 30 60 phr

  • rubber compounding ppdppd ppd group

    Rubber Compounding PPDPPD PPD group

    PPD’s rubber compounds division specializes in formulation creation, developing innovative value-added products that exceed industry requirements. Achieving high quality in rubber compounding stems from a integral formula: solid, long-term R&D combined with a stellar track record in providing our clients with consistent, first-time quality products.

  • rubber compounding: principles, materials, and techniques

    Rubber compounding: Principles, Materials, and Techniques

    The use of silica in rubber compounds improves important compound properties such as tensile strength and cut growth resistance. A difficulty with using silica as a filler is the high energy of

  • rubber formulation an overview sciencedirect topics

    Rubber Formulation an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    Reinforcing agents of the rubber compound act as stress arrestor and are required to have high specific area. This means that the particle must be smaller than 1 μm in size. Typical fillers are carbon black and silica. A primary particle size as small as 0.1 μm can be obtained which can give a specific area of a few hundred square meters per

  • vulcanization & accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators Vulcanization is a cross linking process in which individual molecules of rubber (polymer) are converted into a three dimensional network of interconnected (polymer) chains through chemical cross links(of sulfur). The vulcanization process was discovered in 1839 and the individuals responsible for this discovery were

  • rubber compoundingformulation of rubber compounds

    Rubber compoundingFormulation of Rubber Compounds

    Rubber compoundingFormulation of Rubber Compounds Dr Jakub Kadlcak Manager Material Development Automotive Dr Matthias Soddemann Head of Material Development Automotive RIEG Conference, 7th and 8th December 2016, London, UK

  • royal elastomers compounding guide

    Royal Elastomers Compounding Guide

    Royal Elastomers, LLC produces specialty rubber intermediates for adhesives, sealants, and rubber compounds. The family of specialty intermediates provides both specialty properties and improved processing in a wide range of applications. DPR® Liquid Natural Rubber. Performance additive for rubber compounding. Reactive plasticizer processing

  • 7 quick tips about batch weight calculation for an

    7 Quick Tips About Batch Weight Calculation For An

    2015-03-17· Internal mixer is a standard rubber machinery for volume mixing in both tire industry and non-tire rubber industry. When you use one, your most elementary requirement is to calculate the batch weight for your respective mixer model. Because when mixing rubber compounds, you should understand that different compounds based on the same polymer might require different batch weights.

  • rubber compounding basics rubber

    RUBBER COMPOUNDING BASICS Rubber

    In developing a rubber compound, it is essential to mix the raw dry rubber with various compounding ingredients. The process of sequentially adding the ingredients into the raw rubber is termed ‘compounding’ and the resulting final homogeneous mix is referred to as the ‘rubber compound’.

  • from rubber compound mixing to micro molding

    From rubber compound mixing to micro molding

    2015-12-27· Ortofon has years of experience in the production of technical rubber components developed according to customer applications.

  • rubber compound tmtd suppliers / natural rubber

    rubber compound TMTD suppliers / natural rubber

    rubber compound TMTD suppliers / natural rubber allergy / natural rubber accelerator, US $ 1,500 1,600 / Metric Ton, Chemical Auxiliary Agent, rubber agents, Hebei, China.Source from Shanghai Tuhuang International Trading Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.

  • rubber chemical compound britannica

    Rubber chemical compound Britannica

    Rubber, elastic substance obtained from the exudations of certain tropical plants (natural rubber) or derived from petroleum and natural gas (synthetic rubber). Because of its elasticity, resilience, and toughness, rubber is the basic constituent of the tires used in automotive vehicles, aircraft,

  • rubber compounds

    Rubber Compounds

    At RK Rubber, we provide only the best rubber compounds sourced from within the U.S. We consult with our customers to understand application use and make the best recommendations based on our expertise. Neoprene. Neoprene rubber is a general purpose compound that offers oil resistance and has good chemical stability. It is also able to remain flexible over a wide temperature range. Generally

  • basic rubber compounding rubber

    BASIC RUBBER COMPOUNDING RUBBER

    2013-07-20· In developing a rubber compound, it is essential to mix the raw dry rubber with various compounding ingredients. The process of sequentially adding the ingredients into the raw rubber is termed ‘compounding’ and the resulting final homogeneous mix is referred to as the ‘rubber compound’.

  • rubber compounds in nbr, epdm, fkm (viton®), silicone

    Rubber Compounds in NBR, EPDM, FKM (Viton®), Silicone

    Rubber Compounds. Selecting the proper compound is the first step in designing a seal for your application. Operating temperature range, fluid contact, type of seal whether static or dynamic are some of the criteria you must consider when selecting a compound. There are 36 different types of elastomer compounds available to select from

  • how to improve rubber compounds (2nd edition)

    How to Improve Rubber Compounds (2nd Edition)

    aging resistance. For example, a rubber compound might possess good reversion resistance (anaerobic), yet still be subject to oxidative attack (or vice versa). The type of aging properties that a cured rubber compound possesses is very important in determining how that compound will be classified in accordance with SAE

  • rubber compounds rubber technology

    Rubber compounds Rubber Technology

    Resistance of rubber compounds to media; gases and fluids As used throughout this manual, the term "media" denotes the substance retained by the rubber compound. It may be a liquid, a gas, or a mixture of both. It can even include powders or solids as well. The chemical effect of the media on for instance a rubber O-ring is of prime importance.

  • compound analysis, formula reconstruction. free

    Compound analysis, formula reconstruction. Free

    Compound analysis, formula reconstruction. Link/Page Citation The need to perform chemical analysis and formula reconstruction on rubber compounds originates from varied sources. Requests may originate with rubber mixers, fabricators and end users of rubber parts. These analyses can be employed as part of a quality assurance program, to identify mixing and compounding errors, or to

  • rdi technical: basic rubber compounding

    RDI Technical: Basic Rubber Compounding

    Rubber compounding is one of, if not the most difficult and complex subjects to master in the field of rubber technology. Compounding is not really a science. It is part art, part science. In compounding, one must cope with literally hundreds of variables in material and equipment. There is no infallible mathematical formulation to help the

  • cn101792559a rubber compound for rubber for

    CN101792559A Rubber compound for rubber for

    The invention relates to a rubber compound for a rubber for coating a chemical fiber bleaching rubber roll. The rubber compound comprises ethylene propylene diene monomer, white carbon black, paraffin oil, polymeric liquid plasticizers (such as oligomer esters, liquid ethylene propylene methylene and liquid high vinyl polybutadiene), sulfur, accelerating agents, dicumyl peroxide and other

  • rubber compounding conveyor belt

    Rubber compounding Conveyor belt

    Rubber/caoutchouc is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a natural milky colloidal suspension (latex) or is being made synthetically through polymerization of monomers. The first trace of rubber was found in a coal mine in Germany. It was not from a rubber tree. But, believed to be some 60.000 years old, still had some elasticity

  • epdm rubber compounds polycomp

    EPDM rubber compounds Polycomp

    With our material selector you can select the right compound type. Find your solution . Contact R&D department . Driving the innovation in high performance rubber compounds EPDM rubber compounds Contact us. You are here: Polycomp Products & Solutions General Purpose Compounds EPDM Rubber. EPDM Rubber. Enlarge photo . Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM rubber) has

  • the basic rubber compound cross link sulfur

    The Basic Rubber Compound Cross Link Sulfur

    The Basic Rubber Compound. Introduction Introduction First development ( Goodyear and Hancock) Rubber compound is a mixture of a number of different ingredients Raw gum elastomer as adhesive Significant swelling capacity of raw gum.. The basic compound formula Raw Materials Raw gum elastomer The key ingredient in rubber industry Many of the properties of the final product depend

  • rubber technology: ingredients, activators, fillers

    RUBBER TECHNOLOGY: Ingredients, Activators, Fillers

    Rubber Technology: Activators, Accelerators, Ingredients and Fillers Return to Educational Switchboard Accelerator Activators Inorganic compounds mainly metal oxides-zinc oxide, hydrated lime Organic Acids Normally in combination with metal oxides Stearic, oleic Alkaline substances will increase ph of rubber Usually increases cure rate Age Resistors (Antidegredants) All rubbers

  • styrene-butadiene rubber chemical compound

    Styrene-butadiene rubber chemical compound

    Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), a general-purpose synthetic rubber, produced from a copolymer of styrene and butadiene. Exceeding all other synthetic rubbers in consumption, SBR is used in great quantities in automobile and truck tires, generally as an abrasion-resistant replacement for natural rubber (produced from polyisoprene).

  • accelerators­and­ accelerator­systems­

    accelerators­and­ accelerator­systems­

    An accelerator is defined as the chemical added into a rubber compound to increase the speed of vulcanization and to permit vulcanization to proceed at lower temperature and with greater efficiency. Over 150 different chemicals belonging to different classes of composition are known to function as acceler-ators for rubber vulcanizates of which around 50 accelerators are most commonly used by

  • rubber compounding accelerator tmtd, rubber

    Rubber Compounding Accelerator Tmtd, Rubber

    Alibaba offers 83 rubber compounding accelerator tmtd products. About 4% of these are rubber auxiliary agents, 2% are plastic auxiliary agents. A wide variety of rubber compounding accelerator tmtd options are available to you, such as rubber auxiliary agents, plastic auxiliary agents, and

  • basic rubber compounding

    Basic Rubber Compounding

    Basic Rubber Compounding. In any molded rubber product, the three major influences of part quality that we control are the mold, the process and the rubber formulation. By far the most influential is the latter. In plastics, designers can use material suppliers’ specification data to determine what material will work best in their application

  • starting point rubber compounding formulations

    STARTING POINT RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULATIONS

    STARTING POINT RUBBER COMPOUNDING FORMULATIONS . Important Note: These are Starting Point Rubber Compounding Formulations for providing guide lines only and should be confirmed by laboratory trials. It is expected that modifications may be necessary to

  • rubber compounding accelerator, rubber compounding

    Rubber Compounding Accelerator, Rubber Compounding

    Alibaba offers 130 rubber compounding accelerator products. About 26% of these are rubber auxiliary agents, 14% are plastic auxiliary agents, and 6% are adsorbent. A wide variety of rubber compounding accelerator options are available to you, such as rubber auxiliary agents, plastic auxiliary agents, and coating auxiliary agents.

  • what is a rubber compound? hot topics

    What is a Rubber Compound? Hot Topics

    2016-11-28· Sometimes, there is a misconception that a rubber compound is one ingredient and is the same for every different polymer type. This could not be further from the truth. A rubber compound could be a combination of 3 to 15 different ingredients of thousands of different compositions and vendors. A typical rubber formation based on parts per hundred is: Polymer 100 phr Filler 30 60 phr

  • rubber compounding ppdppd ppd group

    Rubber Compounding PPDPPD PPD group

    PPD’s rubber compounds division specializes in formulation creation, developing innovative value-added products that exceed industry requirements. Achieving high quality in rubber compounding stems from a integral formula: solid, long-term R&D combined with a stellar track record in providing our clients with consistent, first-time quality products.

  • rubber compounding: principles, materials, and techniques

    Rubber compounding: Principles, Materials, and Techniques

    The use of silica in rubber compounds improves important compound properties such as tensile strength and cut growth resistance. A difficulty with using silica as a filler is the high energy of

  • rubber formulation an overview sciencedirect topics

    Rubber Formulation an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    Reinforcing agents of the rubber compound act as stress arrestor and are required to have high specific area. This means that the particle must be smaller than 1 μm in size. Typical fillers are carbon black and silica. A primary particle size as small as 0.1 μm can be obtained which can give a specific area of a few hundred square meters per

  • vulcanization & accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators

    Vulcanization & Accelerators Vulcanization is a cross linking process in which individual molecules of rubber (polymer) are converted into a three dimensional network of interconnected (polymer) chains through chemical cross links(of sulfur). The vulcanization process was discovered in 1839 and the individuals responsible for this discovery were

  • rubber compoundingformulation of rubber compounds

    Rubber compoundingFormulation of Rubber Compounds

    Rubber compoundingFormulation of Rubber Compounds Dr Jakub Kadlcak Manager Material Development Automotive Dr Matthias Soddemann Head of Material Development Automotive RIEG Conference, 7th and 8th December 2016, London, UK

  • royal elastomers compounding guide

    Royal Elastomers Compounding Guide

    Royal Elastomers, LLC produces specialty rubber intermediates for adhesives, sealants, and rubber compounds. The family of specialty intermediates provides both specialty properties and improved processing in a wide range of applications. DPR® Liquid Natural Rubber. Performance additive for rubber compounding. Reactive plasticizer processing

  • 7 quick tips about batch weight calculation for an

    7 Quick Tips About Batch Weight Calculation For An

    2015-03-17· Internal mixer is a standard rubber machinery for volume mixing in both tire industry and non-tire rubber industry. When you use one, your most elementary requirement is to calculate the batch weight for your respective mixer model. Because when mixing rubber compounds, you should understand that different compounds based on the same polymer might require different batch weights.

  • rubber compounding basics rubber

    RUBBER COMPOUNDING BASICS Rubber

    In developing a rubber compound, it is essential to mix the raw dry rubber with various compounding ingredients. The process of sequentially adding the ingredients into the raw rubber is termed ‘compounding’ and the resulting final homogeneous mix is referred to as the ‘rubber compound’.

  • from rubber compound mixing to micro molding

    From rubber compound mixing to micro molding

    2015-12-27· Ortofon has years of experience in the production of technical rubber components developed according to customer applications.

  • rubber compound tmtd suppliers / natural rubber

    rubber compound TMTD suppliers / natural rubber

    rubber compound TMTD suppliers / natural rubber allergy / natural rubber accelerator, US $ 1,500 1,600 / Metric Ton, Chemical Auxiliary Agent, rubber agents, Hebei, China.Source from Shanghai Tuhuang International Trading Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.

  • rubber chemical compound britannica

    Rubber chemical compound Britannica

    Rubber, elastic substance obtained from the exudations of certain tropical plants (natural rubber) or derived from petroleum and natural gas (synthetic rubber). Because of its elasticity, resilience, and toughness, rubber is the basic constituent of the tires used in automotive vehicles, aircraft,

  • rubber compounds

    Rubber Compounds

    At RK Rubber, we provide only the best rubber compounds sourced from within the U.S. We consult with our customers to understand application use and make the best recommendations based on our expertise. Neoprene. Neoprene rubber is a general purpose compound that offers oil resistance and has good chemical stability. It is also able to remain flexible over a wide temperature range. Generally

  • basic rubber compounding rubber

    BASIC RUBBER COMPOUNDING RUBBER

    2013-07-20· In developing a rubber compound, it is essential to mix the raw dry rubber with various compounding ingredients. The process of sequentially adding the ingredients into the raw rubber is termed ‘compounding’ and the resulting final homogeneous mix is referred to as the ‘rubber compound’.

  • rubber compounds in nbr, epdm, fkm (viton®), silicone

    Rubber Compounds in NBR, EPDM, FKM (Viton®), Silicone

    Rubber Compounds. Selecting the proper compound is the first step in designing a seal for your application. Operating temperature range, fluid contact, type of seal whether static or dynamic are some of the criteria you must consider when selecting a compound. There are 36 different types of elastomer compounds available to select from

  • how to improve rubber compounds (2nd edition)

    How to Improve Rubber Compounds (2nd Edition)

    aging resistance. For example, a rubber compound might possess good reversion resistance (anaerobic), yet still be subject to oxidative attack (or vice versa). The type of aging properties that a cured rubber compound possesses is very important in determining how that compound will be classified in accordance with SAE

  • rubber compounds rubber technology

    Rubber compounds Rubber Technology

    Resistance of rubber compounds to media; gases and fluids As used throughout this manual, the term "media" denotes the substance retained by the rubber compound. It may be a liquid, a gas, or a mixture of both. It can even include powders or solids as well. The chemical effect of the media on for instance a rubber O-ring is of prime importance.

  • compound analysis, formula reconstruction. free

    Compound analysis, formula reconstruction. Free

    Compound analysis, formula reconstruction. Link/Page Citation The need to perform chemical analysis and formula reconstruction on rubber compounds originates from varied sources. Requests may originate with rubber mixers, fabricators and end users of rubber parts. These analyses can be employed as part of a quality assurance program, to identify mixing and compounding errors, or to

  • rdi technical: basic rubber compounding

    RDI Technical: Basic Rubber Compounding

    Rubber compounding is one of, if not the most difficult and complex subjects to master in the field of rubber technology. Compounding is not really a science. It is part art, part science. In compounding, one must cope with literally hundreds of variables in material and equipment. There is no infallible mathematical formulation to help the

  • cn101792559a rubber compound for rubber for

    CN101792559A Rubber compound for rubber for

    The invention relates to a rubber compound for a rubber for coating a chemical fiber bleaching rubber roll. The rubber compound comprises ethylene propylene diene monomer, white carbon black, paraffin oil, polymeric liquid plasticizers (such as oligomer esters, liquid ethylene propylene methylene and liquid high vinyl polybutadiene), sulfur, accelerating agents, dicumyl peroxide and other

  • rubber compounding conveyor belt

    Rubber compounding Conveyor belt

    Rubber/caoutchouc is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a natural milky colloidal suspension (latex) or is being made synthetically through polymerization of monomers. The first trace of rubber was found in a coal mine in Germany. It was not from a rubber tree. But, believed to be some 60.000 years old, still had some elasticity

  • epdm rubber compounds polycomp

    EPDM rubber compounds Polycomp

    With our material selector you can select the right compound type. Find your solution . Contact R&D department . Driving the innovation in high performance rubber compounds EPDM rubber compounds Contact us. You are here: Polycomp Products & Solutions General Purpose Compounds EPDM Rubber. EPDM Rubber. Enlarge photo . Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM rubber) has

  • the basic rubber compound cross link sulfur

    The Basic Rubber Compound Cross Link Sulfur

    The Basic Rubber Compound. Introduction Introduction First development ( Goodyear and Hancock) Rubber compound is a mixture of a number of different ingredients Raw gum elastomer as adhesive Significant swelling capacity of raw gum.. The basic compound formula Raw Materials Raw gum elastomer The key ingredient in rubber industry Many of the properties of the final product depend

  • rubber technology: ingredients, activators, fillers

    RUBBER TECHNOLOGY: Ingredients, Activators, Fillers

    Rubber Technology: Activators, Accelerators, Ingredients and Fillers Return to Educational Switchboard Accelerator Activators Inorganic compounds mainly metal oxides-zinc oxide, hydrated lime Organic Acids Normally in combination with metal oxides Stearic, oleic Alkaline substances will increase ph of rubber Usually increases cure rate Age Resistors (Antidegredants) All rubbers

  • styrene-butadiene rubber chemical compound

    Styrene-butadiene rubber chemical compound

    Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), a general-purpose synthetic rubber, produced from a copolymer of styrene and butadiene. Exceeding all other synthetic rubbers in consumption, SBR is used in great quantities in automobile and truck tires, generally as an abrasion-resistant replacement for natural rubber (produced from polyisoprene).

  • accelerators­and­ accelerator­systems­

    accelerators­and­ accelerator­systems­

    An accelerator is defined as the chemical added into a rubber compound to increase the speed of vulcanization and to permit vulcanization to proceed at lower temperature and with greater efficiency. Over 150 different chemicals belonging to different classes of composition are known to function as acceler-ators for rubber vulcanizates of which around 50 accelerators are most commonly used by

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